Freelance journalist (BBC, RFI, magazines), writer (first book on Bristol's music and art scene), I work with Raoul Peck on his film projects. Born in Paris, I have been based in Prague, Miami, London, Nairobi (covering Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia) and Bristol, UK. Travelled to Italy, Haiti, Tunisia, Liberia, South Africa, India, Mexico, Niger, Turkey, Iraq... Passions: Africa, Europe, literature, music, arts. This blog is to share thoughts and cultural discoveries from around the world.
Here's the original video for Frankie Goes To Hollywood's 1984 seasonal Number One, 'The Power Of Love'. Not ostensibly a seasonal song, it has become one of UK's favourite festive sounds and that journey began with this clever and highly evocative promo.
I'll protect you from the hooded claw Keep the vampires from your door
I, feels like fire I'm so in love with you Dreams are like angels They keep bad at bay, bad at bay Love is the light Scaring darkness away, yeah
I'm so in love with you Purge the soul Make love your goal
The power of love A force from above Cleaning my soul Flame on burn desire Love with tongues of fire Purge the soul Make love your goal
I'll protect you from the hooded claw Keep the vampires from your door When the chips are down I'll be around with my undying Death defying love for you Envy will hurt itself Let yourself be beautiful
Sparkling love, flowers and pearls and pretty girls Love is like an energy Rushin' in, rushin' inside of me, yeah
The power of love A force from above Cleaning my soul Flame on burn desire Love with tongues of fire Purge the soul Make love your goal
This time we go sublime Lovers entwine, divine divine Love is danger, love is pleasure Love is pure, the only treasure
I'm so in love with you Purge the soul Make love your goal
The power of love A force from above Cleaning my soul The power of love A force from above A sky-scraping dove
Flame on burn desire Love with tongues of fire Purge the soul Make love your goal
I'll protect you from the hooded claw Keep the vampires from your door
Songwriters: Brian Philip Nash / Holly Johnson / Mark William O'toole / Peter Gill / William Holly Johnson
A creative playlist to celebrate Massive Attack's Mezzanine:
Massive Attack ‘Mezzanine’ Legacy Playlist
When Massive Attack released Mezzanine in 1998, they weren’t exposed to the recording equipment and technology most artists utilize today, making the album an even-more impressive feat. All of the artists in this playlist display some similarities to Massive Attack’s haunting electronic output through a number of genres, from hip hop, to R&B, to simply acoustic. See if you can imagine Massive Attack performing alongside these songs, and maybe their next studio album will resemble some of these current music trends.
Take a listen via Tidal or Spotify and read about each track below. Check out details for our Mezzanine CAS sessions here.
Deltron 3030 ‘Virus’
Dan the Automator, one half of Deletion 3030, was given his first exposure to the popular music scene in producing Dr. Octagon’s Dr. Octagonecologyst, which was released on Mo Wax Records. The psychedelic and experimental hip hop trends of Mo Wax definitely influenced Dan the Automator’s direction as a solo musician and collaborator, and “Virus” is a perfect example of where he succeeds in making an impressionable mark on the genre. Del the Funky Homosapien, the other half of the group, attempts to bring down the world around him as he “composes a virus” to send panic into the world in hopes to change its comfortable course and institute change.
Nine Inch Nails ‘All the Love in the World’
Nine Inch Nail’s style of electronic music is very reminiscent of the terrifying qualities of Mezzanine, but Trent Reznor, the brain behind the band, was more influenced by heavier music in his early career than Massive Attack. As he has grown as a musician, some of his music has taken a more tranquil character, and “All of the Love in the World” is perfect mix of the two musical personas. Similar to Massive Attack, Reznor gradually adds instrumental layers and builds more and more tension as the song plays. By the end, he rips the previous arrangement to shreds only to build a new melody from scratch, which becomes equally as intense with distorted synthesizers.
FKA twigs ‘Papi Pacify’
FKA twigs’ songs often detail how she is lost in love, forcing her to wander into unknown passages to find satisfaction and belonging. Her heart aches for reassurance in “Papi Pacify”, where she yearns for her lover to “clarify [their] love.” Arca’s droning production drips with twisted vocal samples, sporadic clicks of percussion, and bass-heavy waves, making twig’s question a terrifying ultimatum. Arca’s solo work carries the same fearful quality, only it’s more disjointed and requires more brainpower to fully comprehend.
Gorillaz ‘Stylo (feat. Mos Def and Bobby Womack)’
Damon Albarn began to collaborate with Massive Attack after the release of Mezzanine, where he contributed vocals under the identity of Gorrilaz frontman 2D on 100th Window’s “Small Time Shot Away” and appeared as a contributing instrumentalist and vocalist on Heliogland. The philosophy behind “Stylo” is “electric is the love”, which is further emphasized by contributions from Bobby Womack (who’s performance on the track was his first since 1998) and Mos Def. Gorillaz band member Murdoc claimed the song is an effort make music euphoric, which feels evident as soon as the song beings with a catchy synth line. Take a walk with “Stylo” and feel the love “flowing on the streets”.
Portishead ‘Machine Gun’
Most Portishead tracks are pretty slow and creepy, given Geoff Barrow’s sparing production and Beth Gibbon’s eerie but beautiful vocals. “Machine Gun” is one of the few tracks in the Portishead discography fitting for a set of club speakers with its dubby bass and percussion samples. The same beat is repeated throughout the song but is beautifully manipulated to take on multiple sinister forms, proving the beat for the track is nearly perfect.
Death Grips ‘The Fever (Aye Aye)’
Whenever I listen to Mezzanine, I often think how it’s a scary album. It’s grimy and slow character sends tickles down my spine, and Massive Attack emphasize that point through visualizations, like the beetle used for the album art and fetus singing in the “Teardrop” music video. Death Grips is easily the most terrifying and punk-oriented hip hop group today and remind me of this artistic angle. MC Ride, the band’s vocalist, raps with a roaring yell, which is fueled by his endless energy and frustration of being trapped in a world where he doesn’t belong. Zach Hill and Flatliner man the production for the group with loud sirens, live drums, and array of skewed and chopped samples from the oddest places in the music world. If you want to use your imagination, think of what 3D would sing about, if he were the vocalist on the song.
Addison Groove ‘Savage Henry’
In 2012, Massive Attack curated a playlist of their current influences for BBC Radio 6. They featured “Savage Henry” as a current inspiration, which is no surprise when you hit play. When Massive Attack sings about being lost in the lights and sounds of a club, they describe the hectic and dynamic nature like Addison Groove’s music, whose heavy dub beats and chopped vocal samples can make anybody move.
Holly Herndon ‘Interference’
Holly Herndon claims to be an electronic artist inspired by the endless limits of technology. Today, we’re exposed to so many different mediums and devices that our minds are sent into an abyss of possibility, where we are overwhelmed but satisfied of our access to the world around us. Herndon does that in her music, where a variety of fast and slow moving vocal clippings, static, and psychedelic wish-wash is tied together by a mysteriously executed bass composition. “Interference” is oddly addicting because it’s a song that’s impossible to pin down and understand yet you try to do so until your brain can’t follow its sudden movements any longer.
Burial ‘Ghost Hardware’
If you’re looking for an artist that is most consistent with Massive Attack’s style of electronica, look no further than Burial’s Untrue. “Ghost Hardware” is one of the album’s sweeter tracks, thanks to its ghostly female vocal sample, while most of the others feel more fitting for isolation or admiring the darkness around us. I’ve had many great spins of the album on the subway, and it’s easy to get lost in the track’s repetitive beauty while the sounds of the train against the rails below seep through your headphones.
UNKLE ‘Restless (feat. Josh Homme)’
UNKLE is the project of James Lavelle and Tim Goldsworthy, co-founders of alternative hip hop label Mo Wax. Without Mo Wax, UK hip hop wouldn’t be as challenging and complex as it is day— its releases inspired artists to do more with sampling, vinyl, and experimentalism. UNKLE have made their own make on the genre with well-known collaborations with Thom Yorke, Mike D, 3D from Massive Attack, and more. On “Restless”, they craft a melody similar to the Arctic Monkeys’ recent output for Queens of the Stone Age frontman Josh Homme, where he sings about fighting with a mysterious feeling within himself.
Shabazz Palaces ‘Are you… Can you… Were you?’
Shabazz Palaces is an experimental hip hop duo created by Ishmael Butler, founder of 90s hip hop group Digable Planets, and multi-instrumentalist Tendai Maraire. Their debut album, Black Up, is a crazy-but-addicting variation of modern hip hop has yet to be topped- most songs contain multiple addicting melodies, many of their weird experiments succeed, and Butler’s societal critiques are thought-provoking and relatable. In “Are you… Can you… Were you?”, Butler raps about handling life’s hardships and how achieving success is an endless struggle contained within one’s self. Our happiness cannot be entirely defined by the world around us, even though its influences can be overwhelming, and here, Butler is telling the listener to look inside his art and feel inspired to reflect on oneself and relationship between their mind and heart.
Disclosure ‘Help Me Lose My Mind’
While most members of Massive Attack contributed vocals to their songs, they depended on their featured vocalists most to bring variety to their dark, experimental output. Disclosure is a bit more pop-oriented than Massive Attack, but their collaborations with popular vocalists are well-executed, especially on their debut album Settle. The last track on the album, “Help Me Lose My Mind”, features electro-pop group London Grammar along with synth lines that gradually float in and out of focus. Disclosure is proficient in creating effective dance arrangements entertaining enough to propel the song forward without overwhelming the vocalist’s contributions, giving London Grammar an excellent opportunity to exercise her dynamic vocal range.
Jose Gonzalez ‘Teardrop’
While this playlist is understandably consumed by electronic music, Jose Gonzalez, who is also a member of alternative rock outfit Junip, curated a gorgeous cover of “Teardrop” for his sophomore solo album, In Our Nature. Not only does he accurately mimic Elizabeth Fraser’s elusive vocal performance, but he also builds tension during the track’s vocal-less moments with layers aggressive guitar strumming. Gonzalez absolutely does justice to Massive Attack’s best known track here.
Massive Attack's Mezzanine will turn 20 this week:
This key album in Bristol's recent music scene was initially planned for a release in 1997 but had to be delayed many times over, due to the band's intense perfectionist work.
In July 1997, they therefore released an E.P. featuring a first extract from the coming record, 'Risingson', to please fans and satisfied their label's demands.
The album was finally released on April 20, 1998, reaching number 1 in the Albums Chart in the U.K. and many other countries as well as critical acclaim.
Massive Attack as Grant Marshall (known as Daddy G), Andrew Vowles (aka Mushroom) and 3D
3D in the video for 'Risingson'
Initially, last summer, the band was planning a few events to celebrate this anniversary... But we'll have to wait until their summer tour to know more. Meanwhile, you can listen to their iconic singles:
Massive Attack - 'Risingson'
Massive Attack - 'Angel'
Massive Attack - 'Teardrop'
Massive Attack - 'Inertia Creeps'
As you may know, I spent three years working with most of Bristol's musicians to write about the city's cultural history. The book is in the correction phase.
This book is dedicated to the history of the band Massive Attack and to their relationship with their home town of Bristol, a city built on the wealth generated by the slave trade.
As a port Bristol was also an arrival point for immigrants to the UK, most notably the Windrush generation from the Caribbean in the 1950s.
Author Melissa Chemam's in-depth study of the influences that led to the formation of the Wild Bunch and then Massive Attack looks into Bristol's past to explore how the city helped shape one of the most successful and innovative musical movements of the last 30 years.
Based on interviews with Robert (3D) del Naja and others, the book examines the inner tensions between the founding members of Massive Attack - 3D, Daddy G and Mushroom - their influences, collaborations and politics and the way in which they opened the door for other Bristol musicians and artists including Banksy.
The book is published under licence from Anne Carriere in France by Tangent Books.
Its French title is En Dehors De La Zone De Confort - De Massive Attack A Banksy
About the Author
Melissa Chemam is a French journalist and author who has worked for France 24, the BBC World Service and Radio France International, as well as many magazines, and for the filmmaker Raoul Peck. Since 2003, she has been based in Prague, Paris, Miami, then in London, Nairobi and Bangui, travelling into more than 40 countries.
This situation is below all level of human rights. I cannot believe it happened in 2018 in the United Kingdom. Shameful!
Amber Rudd 'sorry' for appalling treatment of Windrush-era citizens
Minister criticises Home Office and promises cases will be resolved in two weeks
The British home secretary has delivered an unprecedented apology for the “appalling” actions of her own department towards Windrush-era citizens, acknowledging that the Home Office had “lost sight of individuals” and become “too concerned with policy”.
In the face of mounting criticism, Amber Rudd announced the creation of a new Home Office team, staffed by 20 officials, dedicated to ensuring that Commonwealth-born long-term UK residents will no longer find themselves classified as illegal immigrants. She promised that cases would be resolved within two weeks and application fees would be waived.
In a highly unusual acknowledgement that the government’s hostile immigration policy is having a catastrophic effects on individuals’ lives, Rudd said: “Frankly, how they have been treated has been wrong – has been appalling – and I am sorry. That is why I am setting up a new area in my department to ensure that we have a completely new approach to how their situation is regularised.”
She made a significant criticism of her own department, adding: “I am concerned that the Home Office has become too concerned with policy and strategy and sometimes loses sight of the individual. This is about individuals, and we have heard the individual stories, some of which have been terrible to hear.”
She said she was very sorry for the anxiety suffered by numerous people who arrived in the UK as children after newly tightened immigration laws required them to prove that they were here legally.
Because newly tightened immigration rules mean individuals are increasingly required to show documents proving a right to be in the UK before they can take up work, rent properties, access healthcare, or claim benefits, many have lost their jobs or been made homeless or refused urgent healthcare. Some have been sent to immigration removal centres or threatened with deportation.
A colleague of Rudd’s, immigration minister Caroline Nokes, earlier appeared to suggest that people had been deported in error back to countries they left as children for not having the right documents. Rudd said she was unable to confirm if this was the case, and had asked Caribbean diplomats if they were aware of mistaken deportations.
The rebuffal was described as “most unfortunate” by the Barbados high commissioner, just before the meeting began. Within hours, Theresa May’s spokesman announced that she had agreed to set up a meeting after all. He added that the prime minister “deeply values” the contribution the Windrush generation have made, but the outrage over the initial refusal overshadowed the opening of the conference.
The decision to back down on the refusal to schedule a Chogm meeting on the issue followed rising anger from politicians of all parties. Over 140 MPs from all parties sent a letter to May, expressing concern about the incorrect classification of many Commonwealth-born, long-term British as “illegal immigrants” and calling on her to find a “swift resolution of this growing crisis”.
Communities secretary Sajid Javid said he was “deeply concerned” about the Windrush scandal, adding ”this should not happen to people who have been longstanding pillars of our community.”
Rudd’s announcement came in response to an urgent question called by Labour’s David Lammy who said it was “inhumane and cruel” for so many in the Windrush generation “to have suffered so long in this condition”.
“This is a day of national shame and it has come about because of a hostile environment policy that was begun under her prime minister. Let us call it as it is. If you lay down with dogs, you get fleas, and that is what has happened with this far-right rhetoric in this country,” he said.
“Can she [Rudd] tell the house how many have been detained as prisoners in their own country? Can she tell us how many have been denied healthcare under the National Health Service, how many have been denied pensions and how many have lost their jobs?” he asked.
The shadow home secretary, Diane Abbott, expressed scepticism about whether the new Home Office team would really resolve the problems faced by hundreds of people. “How much confidence can people have in the special team when people with lawyers have been unable to resolve their situations?” she asked.
She also called on the government to apologise to those people wrongfully detained. Neither Paulette Wilson, 61 nor Anthony Bryan, 60, who were both told they were illegal immigrants and detained in immigration removal centres – despite each having lived and worked in this country for over half a century – have had any apology from the Home Office for their treatment.
Until now individuals have struggled to provide the evidence required by the Home Office to resolve their status problems – often unable to submit the recommended four pieces of documentary evidence for every year spent in the UK, not least because relatives have died, schools have shut down and records have been destroyed.
Decades of national insurance records have not been deemed sufficient proof, but Rudd said that would change, and Home Office staff would attempt to work with other departments to source paperwork.
“The team will be tasked with helping these applicants demonstrate they are entitled to live in the UK and will be tasked with resolving cases within two weeks of the evidence being provided. They will work across government to help these applicants prove they have been working and living in the UK,” she said.
Satbir Singh, the CEO of the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants, welcomed the new team. “But that on its own is not enough: the Home Office must commit to a system which treats affected people with fairness, humanity and flexibility,” he added.
“In the past few days we’ve witnessed the culmination of years of government policy explicitly designed to turn us into a hostile society and which have made the Home Office into an island of inhumanity and incompetence. This is the first time that the government has been forced to account for these deliberate decisions. We hope it marks the start of a conversation about how we treat all those who seek to make a life here.”
Friday 1 December 2017 Anthony Bryan becomes the second of the Windrush generation facing deportation under Theresa May’s hostile environment policy to tell his story to the Guardian. Bryan’s deportation to Jamaica was only cancelled at the last moment after a legal intervention. “They don’t tell you why they are holding you and they don’t tell you why they let you out. You feel so depressed,” he said.
Thursday 11 January 2018 The government relents in Wilson’s case, finally giving her official leave to remain in the UK. During her more than 50 years in the UK, Wilson had served food to MPs as a cook in the House of Commons and raised a family. But the Home Office did not initially believe she was in the country legally.
Wednesday 21 February 2018 “It’s an appalling place to live. I’m a proud man; I’m embarrassed at my age to be living like this,” Renford McIntyre tells the Guardian as the former NHS driver, who arrived in the UK in 1968, details how he has been left homeless, living in an industrial unit after being told he was not allowed to work and was not eligible for any government support.
Thursday 22 February 2018 The issue begins to snowball, as senior Caribbean diplomats urge the Home Office to adopt a “more compassionate” approach towards retirement-age Commonwealth citizens. “In this system one is guilty before proven innocent rather than the other way around,” the Jamaican high commissioner to London, Seth George Ramocan, says.
Thursday 22 March 2018 Theresa May refuses to intervene in Thompson’s case, having promised to do so when confronted by the Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, at prime minister’s questions. She says the decision lies with the hospital under her government’s new rules, which place a responsibility on clinicians to decide whether or not a case is urgent and demand documents before giving treatment where they are thought not to be.
Thursday 12 April 2018 International anger at Britain’s treatment of the Windrush generation grows as Caribbean diplomats condemn the Home Office. “I am dismayed that people who gave their all to Britain could be seemingly discarded so matter-of-factly,” says Guy Hewitt, the Barbados high commissioner to the UK.
Friday 13 April 2018 Voices of opposition are also raised domestically, as four Church of England bishops join a call for an immigration amnesty for those people who moved to the UK from the Caribbean decades ago. They start a petition that is backed by more than 140,000 signatories by Monday.
Monday 16 April 2018 Events begin to move quickly. The Labour MP, David Lammy, calls this a “day of national shame”, telling the Commons: “Let us call it as it is. If you lay down with dogs, you get fleas, and that is what has happened with this far right rhetoric in this country.”
The home secretary, Amber Rudd, announces the creation of a team dedicated to ensuring no more Windrush-era citizens be classified as illegal immigrants and acknowledges Home Office failings. She also promises none of them will be deported because of lack of paperwork.
And if you take too long before you agree to let me tame you, it'll be too late, I'll be gone, and we'll be nothing to each other... Just another little boy, another fox, another rose...
It was then that the fox appeared.
"Good morning," said the fox.
"Good morning," the little prince responded politely, although when he turned around he saw nothing.
"I am right here," the voice said, "under the apple tree."
"Who are you?" asked the little prince, and added, "You are very pretty to look at."
"I am a fox," the fox said.
"Come and play with me," proposed the little prince. "I am so unhappy."
"I cannot play with you," the fox said. "I am not tamed."
"Ah! Please excuse me," said the little prince.
But, after some thought, he added:
"What does that mean--'tame'?"
"You do not live here," said the fox. "What is it that you are looking for?"
"I am looking for men," said the little prince. "What does that mean--'tame'?"
"Men," said the fox. "They have guns, and they hunt. It is very disturbing. They also raise chickens. These are their only interests. Are you looking for chickens?"
"No," said the little prince. "I am looking for friends. What does that mean--'tame'?"
"It is an act too often neglected," said the fox. It means to establish ties."
"'To establish ties'?"
"Just that," said the fox. "To me, you are still nothing more than a little boy who is just like a hundred thousand other little boys. And I have no need of you. And you, on your part, have no need of me. To you, I am nothing more than a fox like a hundred thousand other foxes. But if you tame me, then we shall need each other. To me, you will be unique in all the world. To you, I shall be unique in all the world..."
"I am beginning to understand," said the little prince. "There is a flower . . . I think that she has tamed me..."
"It is possible," said the fox. "On the Earth one sees all sorts of things."
"Oh, but this is not on the Earth!" said the little prince.
The fox seemed perplexed, and very curious.
"On another planet?"
"Are there hunters on that planet?"
"Ah, that is interesting! Are there chickens?"
"Nothing is perfect," sighed the fox.
But he came back to his idea.
"My life is very monotonous," the fox said. "I hunt chickens; men hunt me. All the chickens are just alike, and all the men are just alike. And, in consequence, I am a little bored. But if you tame me, it will be as if the sun came to shine on my life. I shall know the sound of a step that will be different from all the others. Other steps send me hurrying back underneath the ground. Yours will call me, like music, out of my burrow. And then look: you see the grain-fields down yonder? I do not eat bread. Wheat is of no use to me. The wheat fields have nothing to say to me. And that is sad. But you have hair that is the colour of gold. Think how wonderful that will be when you have tamed me! The grain, which is also golden, will bring me back the thought of you. And I shall love to listen to the wind in the wheat..."
The fox gazed at the little prince, for a long time.
"Please--tame me!" he said.
"I want to, very much," the little prince replied. "But I have not much time. I have friends to discover, and a great many things to understand."
"One only understands the things that one tames," said the fox. "Men have no more time to understand anything. They buy things all ready made at the shops. But there is no shop anywhere where one can buy friendship, and so men have no friends any more. If you want a friend, tame me..."
"What must I do, to tame you?" asked the little prince.
"You must be very patient," replied the fox. "First you will sit down at a little distance from me -- like that -- in the grass. I shall look at you out of the corner of my eye, and you will say nothing. Words are the source of misunderstandings. But you will sit a little closer to me, every day..."
The next day the little prince came back.
"It would have been better to come back at the same hour," said the fox. "If, for example, you come at four o'clock in the afternoon, then at three o'clock I shall begin to be happy. I shall feel happier and happier as the hour advances. At four o'clock, I shall already be worrying and jumping about. I shall show you how happy I am! But if you come at just any time, I shall never know at what hour my heart is to be ready to greet you... One must observe the proper rites..."
"What is a rite?" asked the little prince.
"Those also are actions too often neglected," said the fox. "They are what make one day different from other days, one hour from other hours. There is a rite, for example, among my hunters. Every Thursday they dance with the village girls. So Thursday is a wonderful day for me! I can take a walk as far as the vineyards. But if the hunters danced at just any time, every day would be like every other day, and I should never have any vacation at all."
So the little prince tamed the fox.
And when the hour of his departure drew near -- "Ah," said the fox, "I shall cry."
"It is your own fault," said the little prince. "I never wished you any sort of harm; but you wanted me to tame you . . ."
"Yes, that is so," said the fox.
"But now you are going to cry!" said the little prince.
"Yes, that is so," said the fox.
"Then it has done you no good at all!"
"It has done me good," said the fox, "because of the colour of the wheat fields."
And then he added:
"Go and look again at the roses. You will understand now that yours is unique in all the world. Then come back to say goodbye to me, and I will make you a present of a secret."
The little prince went away, to look again at the roses.
"You are not at all like my rose," he said. "As yet you are nothing. No one has tamed you, and you have tamed no one. You are like my fox when I first knew him. He was only a fox like a hundred thousand other foxes. But I have made him my friend, and now he is unique in all the world."
And the roses were very much embarassed.
"You are beautiful, but you are empty," he went on. "One could not die for you. To be sure, an ordinary passerby would think that my rose looked just like you -- the rose that belongs to me. But in herself alone she is more important than all the hundreds of you other roses: because it is she that I have watered; because it is she that I have put under the glass globe; because it is she that I have sheltered behind the screen; because it is for her that I have killed the caterpillars (except the two or three that we saved to become butterflies); because it is she that I have listened to, when she grumbled, or boasted, or ever sometimes when she said nothing. Because she is my rose.
And he went back to meet the fox.
"Goodbye," he said.
"Goodbye," said the fox. "And now here is my secret, a very simple secret: It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye."
"What is essential is invisible to the eye," the little prince repeated, so that he would be sure to remember.
"It is the time you have wasted for your rose that makes your rose so important."
"It is the time I have wasted for my rose --" said the little prince, so that he would be sure to remember.
"Men have forgotten this truth," said the fox. "But you must not forget it. You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed. You are responsible for your rose . . ."
"I am responsible for my rose," the little prince repeated, so that he would be sure to remember.
Extrait: Le Petit Prince
D'Antoine de Saint-Exupéry